In a discouraging new development, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has announced a US$48 million partnership with the National Nanotechnology Initiative. The Gates Foundation has for years been fighting local communities’ resistance to enforce a "green revolution" on Africa. African farmers have argued that the Gates/ Rockerfeller-backed "new green revolution" would act as a Trojan Horse for GMOs, and erode local farmers’ knowledge and agricultural heritage. In short, they have argued that the philanthropic initiatives are acting as a smokescreen for multinational seed and agrochemical companies keen to open up a new market. Now, nanotechnology has been added to that equation.